Information Technology And Wireless Network – This is a glossary of terms frequently used in describing and discussing wireless technology – from amplifiers to wireless network topology – useful for understanding articles about wireless devices and networks.
It is designed to help those who are familiar with networking, but not necessarily with radio and wireless technologies, quickly get through the confusion and understand what these terms mean.
Information Technology And Wireless Network
Entries are listed alphabetically except for this opening entry, radio, which is for the rest.
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A diverse and powerful set of technologies and engineering techniques used to enable the transmission of information
, a property of the physical universe. The general process used is to (a) create a carrier wave through an oscillator at a given moment
Signal, trying to at least partially compensate for the uncertainty of radio communication and technical artifacts related to electromagnetic waves, d)
In amplitude (signal strength) as they propagate through the radio channel both with the square of the distance and due to interaction with objects in the environment, including other radio signals. Provided the receiving antenna has sufficient signal strength, the signal is (a) detected, (b) amplified, and (c) decoded and demodulated, thereby recovering the information contained in the signal.
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In reality, today’s radio designers are faced with a large number of options and alternatives. However, very large scale integration (VLSI) has allowed equipment manufacturers to easily and cost-effectively exploit standards-based wireless systems, and thus has been largely responsible for the spread of wireless communication in many countries. . of networks today.
Amplifiers are electronic circuits that increase the power of the signal transmitted to them (increase the amplitude). Although many different types of amplifiers are widely used in many electronic applications, there are two important amplifiers used in wireless communications: the power amplifier (PA), which is used to amplify the signal sent to the transmit antenna, and the low-noise amplifier (LNA). . , is used to amplify the normally very weak signal appearing on the receiving antenna.
The “real world” is a field of continuous signals, often described as analog waves, usually a sine wave at some frequency. Radio waves are an example of an analog value. However, modern communication systems are based on digital technology, where the goal is to encode and transmit the ones and zeros of the digital world through analog signals. Digital is used because communication systems only have to deal with the successful transmission of two discrete values, not the precision of continuous waves, and because digital processing is much more efficient, convenient, cost-effective, and adaptable than analog circuitry. Note that in broadcasting, digital signals are actually represented as analog values. Therefore, analog and digital are always interconnected in communication systems using circuits called analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters, which are used to translate the representation of information between these two domains.
The antenna in a wireless communication system is analogous to the tires of a car or other vehicle – the antenna is the only part of the radio car that actually touches the environment over which the radio waves are propagating. Antennas cover a wide range of designs and applications, from simple coils of wire (sometimes called “whip” or “bunny ear” antennas) to designs based on fractals and other complex mathematics, and so-called smart antennas. active (powered) electronics. components. In general, antenna designs are optimized for a specific frequency range, lower frequencies typically require physically larger antennas, and are either “omnidirectional,” transmitting directly and receiving simultaneously from all directions, or “conductive,” optimizing transmission and reception over a limited range. the number of degrees of arc. Antennas can also be designed to give a certain amount
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Act as passive amplifiers during transmission and reception and can be combined at the receiving end using a technique known as “antenna diversity” to at least partially compensate.
That is statically or dynamically assigned and used individually (and distinctly and concurrently) for a given service or application.
The range, and hence the amount of spectrum used in a given transmission, with the nominal frequency being the center of that range. See also
That part of the radio that handles processing other than that required for functions directly related to radio frequencies. Increasingly, this processing is performed by digital signal processing components. In an extreme case, an analog-to-digital converter can directly convert the air waveform into a digital stream suitable for baseband processing. However, many applications often use significant analog processing due to cost, design requirements such as limited physical space and environmental concerns, and the experience level and preferences of the radio designers involved.
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A set of techniques that uses multiple transmit antennas and associated signal processing to combine independent transmissions to increase reliability and/or bias transmitted radio waves in a specific direction (commonly known as “fast steering”). Although two or more antennas can be used in this way, implementations with a larger number of antenna elements are often described by the term “phased array”.
An imprecise term typically used to describe an improvement in one or more performance dimensions (utilization, range, reliability, etc.) that results from using more bandwidth than would otherwise be required in a given application. Broadband is often used, again inaccurately, as a descriptive term for relatively higher performance in general. In terms of radio, the term “broadband” is more appropriate in this case, meaning the use of more spectrum than would otherwise be needed to meet the above objectives. See also
Power refers to the upper limit of the performance of a given channel. Power is by definition an imprecise term, given that the behavior of any radio channel, and therefore the power, is variable under normal operating conditions. Therefore, capacity can vary, but the term is often used to describe the ability of a shared channel to transmit the maximum amount of information at any given time, as opposed to the maximum throughput of any given transmitter. Given that channel capacity in many operating systems can easily provide much more throughput at any given time than is otherwise required for a given communication, the ability to use “excess” spectrum is often desirable, if not essential. Therefore, throughput refers to the ability of any given channel to support simultaneous, distinct, and diverse communications, and is usually more important than throughput in the specification, design, and operation of most applications.
Challenges. The basic idea is to allow the connection between the customer and the wireless network infrastructure to be “decoupled” between individual radio base stations, called cells, both as customers move and in certain cases for load balancing. This feature is often referred to as “roaming”. Although not always economically or logistically feasible, cells can in principle be deployed at any geographic scale and are widely used both widely and locally (see
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) apps. Cell placement can be complex and considerations such as local zoning regulations and the availability and provision of power and back-up equipment are taken into account. Although a single cell can potentially cover a very large geographic area subject to transmission power rules, local terrain, etc., the emphasis today is on “small cells,” which is an imprecise term. Although due to coverage, handover activity may increase. As the area of a given cell decreases, the faster reuse of allocated frequencies in a given mobile device can lead to a dramatic increase in overall system capacity and thus improve throughput and connection delay.
. Bands are often split into channels to allow for multiple different communications at the same time. The channel defined here should not be confused with a radio channel when used under the physical elements of the universe that support radio communication. The bandwidth of a given channel may vary depending on the radio system used. For example, the IEEE 802.11ac wireless LAN standard specifies the availability of 20-, 40-, 80-, and 160-MHz channels. However, the decision as to which bandwidth to use under certain circumstances rests with the individual product implementer and/or end user. Wider channels allow potentially higher throughput at the expense of higher interference and a reduction in the total number of available channels. In certain cases, certain channels may also overlap. This overlap is not necessarily a problem if the distance between the transmitters is sufficient to avoid harmful and potentially mutual interference, and thus can be used to compensate for interference in some cases.
Channel adaptation is the ability of the radio system (transmitter and receiver) to change the elements of a given communication link, incl.
Transmissions and power transmission to improve the power of a given radio channel under dynamically changing operating conditions. Although often described in applicable technical standards such as 802.11, the actual behavior of a particular product is at the discretion of the real-time vendor and channel-specific customization strategy of the particular application, usually via firmware. Given that channel conditions can vary greatly from moment to moment, there are different channel adaptation schemes