Engineering Geology For Civil Engineers – Imran Mehmood Department of Civil Engineering Swedish Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Wah Cantt Date # 26 December 2011 – Lecture # 04
2 GEOLOGY “Geology is the study of the Earth, including its material components, the physical and chemical changes that occur on its surface and within it, and the history of the planet and its life forms” Physical Geology – ” It studies materials and processes. On Earth” Historical Geology: “Studies the origin and evolution of the planets over time” Engineering Geology: “The application of geological data, techniques and principles to the study of rock and soil surface materials and groundwater” Seismology – “the study of creation. , the propagation and recording of elastic waves and the source that produces them”
Engineering Geology For Civil Engineers
Civil engineers design structures built on or above ground. Therefore, understanding soil behavior is critical to civil engineering design. Soil materials can create important problems that must be anticipated, planned and designed for: Foundation engineering: assessment of soil conditions Engineering of construction materials: quality of stones, lime, cement, etc. Infrastructure engineering – bridges, tunnels, location of meandering areas in rivers Disaster mitigation – earthquake resistant structural design, flood control, river formation, bridge routing.
Solution: Geology For Civil Engineers
4 The origin of the Earth Most researchers believe that the Earth and the other planets were created essentially at the same time: the Nebular hypothesis 5,000 million years ago, the formation of a faint and icy cloud (dust and gas) due to the explosion of a star. It was composed of Hydrogen and Helium (abundant in the universe) The cloud’s temperature was approximately 270˚C. Gravitational pulls condensed the cloud into a sphere. As condensation continued, the cloud rotated faster, stretching the sphere toward the disk. At this stage, the cloud collapsed towards the center (due to gravity) and created a protosequence.
The heat of the proto-sun heated the inner region of the disk. When the collapse was complete, the disk cooled and the gases outside the disk condensed to form small aggregates. Over time, the aggregates stuck together, increased in size, and developed stronger gravitational forces. 100 km diameter) The sun’s heat has boiled/removed the gases inside the solar system, which is why Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are rocky (terrestrial, Earth-like) planets.
Processes that occur inside the earth. These are the forces that lift mountains, cause earthquakes and create volcanic eruptions. Builders, engineers, and city planners can consult geologists and ask themselves, “What is the probability that an earthquake or volcanic eruption will damage our city? Is it safe to build skyscrapers, a dam or a nuclear project in the area?’
ATMOSPHERE Air It contains all the air in the Earth system. Origin of the Earth BIOSPHERE Living organisms It contains all the living organisms on Earth: micro-organisms, plants and animals. LITHOSPHERE Earth Contains all the cold, hard, solid earth on Earth’s surface (surface), the semi-solid earth below the surface, and the liquid earth near the center. HYDROSPHERE Water contains all the solid, liquid and gaseous water on Earth.
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Layers defined by composition Crust Mantle Core Layers defined by physical properties Lithosphere Asthenosphere Mesosphere Inner and outer core
They are composed of fairly hard, brittle and strong rocks (earthquake fractures). The crust usually has two types of thickness; Under the oceans it is between 5 km and 10 km thick (oceanic crust) and under land masses its thickness is about 10 km and 40 km (continental crust). However, it is 70 km thick under the mountains. The eggshell analogy of the earth’s crust is not an exaggeration, since it is paper thin compared to the radius of the earth, 6400 km. The total weight of the continental crust is less than 0.3% of the Earth’s total.
It is almost 2900 km thick and makes up 80% of the earth’s volume. The chemical composition of the mantle may remain the same, but due to the large variation of temperature and pressure with depth, the strength of the mantle changes with depth. Which creates layers within the mantle. These layers are: Lithosphere Asthenosphere Mesosphere
The upper mantle is relatively cold rock and therefore hard and solid. The outer part of the Earth, which includes the upper mantle and the crust, forms the lithosphere (Greek = rock layer). It can be 10 km long. However, it extends from 75 km under the oceans to 125 km under the continents.
Encyclopedia Of Engineering Geology
At a depth of 75 km to 125 km, the lithosphere becomes asthenosphere, which is weak and less hard than the lithosphere. 1-2% of the asthenosphere is liquid, where the temperature is close to the melting point of rocks. Its flow rate is cm/year as it is made of plastic. It extends up to 350 km from the base of the lithosphere. MANTLE → MESOSPHERE It is the lowest layer of the mantle. Its stiffness is between that of the lithosphere and the asthenosphere.
15 THE CORE OF THE EARTH’S LAYERS The core is the inner layer of the earth, it has a radius of 3470 km and is mostly composed of iron and nickel. NUKA → OUTSIDE It is in a molten state due to the high temperature above the melting point. Its thickness is below the base of the mantle up to 2300km NUENTA → INTERIOR It is in a solid state, the pressure in its center is almost a million times greater than at sea level, which prevails at a temperature of about 6000˚C. Its thickness is about 1100 km.
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Geology In Civil Engineering
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Engineering Geology Scope of Geology Geology is the science of the Earth, it is not a basic science like mathematics, physics, chemistry or biology, but it is the application of these basic sciences to the problems presented by the earth. • Geological engineering can be defined as the branch of applied science concerned with the application of geology for the safe and economical design and construction of civil engineering projects. The basic purpose of engineering geology is twofold: it enables the civil engineer to understand the engineering application of certain conditions related to the construction area, which are essentially geological. It enables geologists to understand the nature of geological information that is absolutely critical to the safe design and construction of a civil engineering project. Geology and civil engineering The field of geological engineering is best studied in relation to the main activities of the civil engineering profession, namely: construction, water resources development, urban planning and territorial planning. Geology in construction works • Heavy construction works such as buildings, towers, tanks, dams.