Application Of Geology In Civil Engineering

Application Of Geology In Civil Engineering – Geology is the study of the earth, the materials it is made of, the structure of those materials and the effect of natural forces that work on them and is important in civil engineering because all the work that engineers do includes land and land. his plan. A basic understanding of geology is very important and is a requirement in civil engineering programs at the university level. For a civil engineering project to be successful, engineers must understand the land upon which the project is based. Geologists study the soil to determine if it is stable enough to support the required activity. They also study water patterns to determine if a site is prone to flooding. Some civil engineers use geologists to analyze rocks for precious metals, oil, gas and groundwater.

The study of the quality and characteristics of the site is an important factor for any engineering project as they affect the design and construction of civil engineering projects and the protection of neighboring buildings. A professional engineer should have some basic concepts related to geology and site investigation. The main purpose of the site survey is to determine exactly as possible the nature and structure of the strata; Ground water conditions at the site; Physical characteristics of the soil and rock underlying the site; The mechanical properties, such as strength and compressibility of different soils or rock strata, and

Application Of Geology In Civil Engineering

Application Of Geology In Civil Engineering

The process of researching and evaluating a new site involves a five-step process. These methods are: preliminary analysis using published information and other available data; a comprehensive geological survey of the site, possibly with a photogeology study; geophysical surveys were applied to provide information on the topography of the land; Drilling, boring and drilling to provide confirmation of previous results, with quantitative details, and important points on the site; and test the soil and rocks to determine their suitability, especially their construction materials (earthworks and stone machinery), either in situ or by inspection.

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In a major engineering project, each of these steps can be performed and explained by a consultant specializing in geology, geophysics or engineering (with sufficient knowledge of soil mechanics or rock). However, even where the work of a professional engineer is carried out, the engineer has full control and responsibility for the work. Therefore, the engineer must have a sufficient understanding of geology to know how and when to use the skills of those who supervise the work, and to be able to read their reports carefully, to decide their confidence, and understand how the situations described may affect the work.

Most civil engineering projects involve some digging and rock, or involve moving the earth by building on it. In some cases, the quarried rock is used as a construction material, and in others, the rock can form a large part of the finished product, such as a road cut or a water feature. water. Feasibility, planning and design, construction and cost, and safety of the work can depend on the terrain where the work will be done.

7 Science of geology The word geology comes from the Greek words “GEO” = Earth and “LOGOS” = Study or word. So Geology is the branch of science that deals with the study of Earth’s surface. Geology is traditionally divided into two broad categories – physical and historical. Physical geology deals with the composition of the earth and the many processes at work below and above the earth. Historical geology deals with the origin of the Earth and its development over time.

PETROLOGY – The study of rocks (igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary petrology) and how they form in their environment. MINERALOGY – The study of minerals, their crystals and their chemistry, and their properties CRYSTALLOGRAPHY – The study of the structure and placement of atoms in solid crystals and the geometric structure of crystals HYDROGEOLOGY – The field of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of land. water in the ground and rocks of the united world. LITHOLOGY – The study of the structure of rocks based on their physical and chemical properties.

Principles Of Engineering Geology And Geotechnics. Geology, Soil, And Rock Mechanics, And Other Earth Sciences Used In Civil Engineering. Dimitri P. Krynine And William R. Judd. Mcgraw Hill, New York, 1957. Xiii +

GEOPHYSICS – The branch of geology that uses physics to study the structure, climate and oceans of the Earth. BEDROCK GEOLOGY – How intact, hard rock beneath surf sediments formed including age (stratigraphic order), morphology and rock properties (folding, faulting, fractures). TRATIGRAPHY – How rock layers and strata are analyzed to measure geologic time. Soil Science – How soil interacts as a natural resource including its composition, physical, chemical and biological properties.

Heavier elements like iron move toward the center of the earth while lighter elements rise to the surface.

13 Structure of the Earth The age of the Earth is about 4.6 billion years. The division of matter that began early in the history of the world led to the establishment of three levels of chemical composition they described – fiber, mantle and core. The world can be divided into different levels based on physical characteristics. The physical properties used to describe such areas include whether the layer is solid or liquid and how weak or hard it is. Recognizing both types of structures is important to our understanding of geological processes, such as volcanoes, earthquakes and mountain buildings.

Application Of Geology In Civil Engineering

The mantle, the Earth’s thin outer shell, has two distinct types – continental crust and oceanic crust. Both share the word “shell,” but the similarities end there. The sea shell is about seven kilometers wide and is made of dark basalt rock. In contrast, the continental crust is about 35 km thick but can exceed 70 km in some mountainous areas such as the Rockies and the Himalayas. Unlike oceanic crust, which has a similar chemical composition, continental crust contains many types of rocks. Continental rocks have an average density of about 2.7 g/cm3, and some have been found to be 4 billion years old. Oceanic rocks are younger (about 180 million years or less) and denser (about 3.0 g/cm3) than continental rocks.*

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More than 82 percent of the Earth’s volume is in the mantle, a thick, rocky belt that extends to a depth of nearly 2,900 kilometers. The boundary between the crust and the mantle represents the change in more in chemical composition. The most common type of rock in the upper mantle is peridotite, which is richer in magnesium and iron than minerals found in continents or oceans.

The upper mantle extends from the boundary of the mantle to a depth of about 660 km. The upper mantle can be divided into two distinct layers. The upper part of the upper mantle is part of the solid lithosphere, and below it is the weak asthenosphere. The lithosphere (Spere of rock) consists of the entire crust and upper mantle that forms a relatively cool and rigid upper shell of the Earth. About 100 kilometers long, the lithosphere lies more than 250 kilometers beneath the oldest parts of the continent. Beneath this solid layer to a depth of about 350 kilometers is a thin, weak layer known as the asthenosphere.

From a depth of 660 kilometers to the top, at a depth of 2900 kilometers, there is a mantle. Due to the increase in pressure (due to the weight of the rock on the surface) the mantle gradually strengthens with depth. However, despite their strength, the rocks in the lower mantle are very hot and can flow very slowly.

It is believed that the main composition is an iron-nickel alloy. At the extreme pressure found in the core, this iron-containing material has an average density of almost 11 g/cm3 and reaches 14 times the density of water in the center of the earth. Its main part is divided into two areas that reflect different work strengths. The outer core is the 2270 km deep water layer. It is the movement of metal in this region that causes the Earth’s magnetic field. The inner core is a solid hole with a radius of 1216 kilometers. Despite its high temperature, the iron in the interior is solid due to the high pressure at the center of the Earth.

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To the curious traveler, the variety seems almost endless. When a rock is examined closely, we find that it contains crystals or small grains called minerals. Minerals are chemical compounds (or sometimes single elements), each of which has its own composition and physical properties. Grains or crystals may be small or easily visible to the naked eye. The shape and form of the stone is greatly influenced by the minerals that make it up. In addition, the nature of the rock – the size, shape, and / or composition of the minerals that make it up – also has a great impact on its appearance. The composition and mineral content of the rock, in turn, is a reflection of the geological system that created it

20 Rocks Geologists divide rocks into three main types: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic based on how they formed.

The rock cycle is a basic concept in geology that describes the changes in geological time between three main rock types: sedimentary,

Application Of Geology In Civil Engineering

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